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Communications in management. Modern tendencies of development

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Communications in management. Modern tendencies of development
These days it is simply obvious that everyone is constantly interacting with a huge flow of information. Information is one of the widely recognized components of almost all spheres of activity. Information is the basis of management, the link between the manager and the environment, in which he is included in the process of life activity.

The ability to communicate abstract ideas is one of the important distinctive abilities of man. Communication is the process of exchanging information, its meaning between two or more people.
The main efforts of management will focus not so much on the internal state of the large company, as on the development of external relations with partners, the formation of horizontal structures of interest.
As a result the structural boundaries of business are blurred, its closedness and risks in competitive markets are reduced, the advantages of the phenomenon of partnership and self-organization appear.
Therefore, in today's world, it is almost impossible to overestimate the importance of communications in management. Almost everything that managers do to make it easier for an organization to achieve its goals requires the effective exchange of information. Communication is a connecting process because information exchange is embedded in all major management activities for computer notification.
The strength and quality of relationships between people is largely a function of how clear and honest their interpersonal relationships are. Because an organization is a structured type of relationship between people, it relies heavily on the quality of communications to function effectively.
Obviously, if communications between people are not effective, people will not be able to agree on a common goal, which is a prerequisite for the existence of the organization as such. Information in the communication process is transmitted not only so that sound decisions can be made, but also so that they can be carried out.
By thinking deeply about communication at the level of the individual and the organization, we must learn to reduce the incidence of ineffective communication and become better, more effective managers. Effective managers are those who are effective communicators. They represent the essence of the communication process, have well-developed oral and written communication skills, and understand how the environment affects the exchange of information.
Communication is a pervasive and complex process that is an integral part of management.

The concept of communication

Communication is one of the most important factors in integrating management. Communication is the communication of people in the process of their joint activity, it is the exchange of ideas, opinions, thoughts, feelings, exchange of information.

Without communication, no organizational group of people can exist. Communication here acts as a condition of organization.
Without communication, management is also impossible, because it, on the one hand, relies on existing and established forms of communication, and, on the other hand, forms those forms of communication that facilitate both joint activities and management itself. The concept of "Communication" combines three aspects of the joint activity of people: the movement of information, the process of management and the relationship of the individual to the purpose of management and management decisions. The manager distributes the information and determines the order of its movement, influencing the attitude of the individual both to the information and to the management and other individuals. Often the concept of "Communication" is identified with the concept of "Information" or in practical management consider communication as a consequence of information management.
Types of communications
According to the scale of the communication process and the mass of people involved in it, a distinction is made between mass, medium, (intra-organizational) and local, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal.
Mass communication is a system of interrelations allowing almost simultaneous access to socially significant messages to a large number of people, regardless of location, position, social status. Such communication develops through the use of technical means of reproduction and transmission of the message. As a rule, mass communications are carried out by specialized organizations (publishing houses, agencies, editorial offices, studios).
Mass communications can also mean simultaneous communication with a large number of people in a limited space, allowing them to interact (communicate) with "opinion leaders" (for example, rallies, marches, presentations, [[] corporate screensaver ] concerts in large open or closed stadiums). The common criterion for both types of mass communication is the simultaneous consumption of mass information by large numbers of people.
Intra-organizational communications are interactions within organizations. To such communications can be attributed the interaction of a member of the organization with its structural divisions, as well as the structural divisions of organizations among themselves.
External communications is the connection of any social system with external social formations. Which exist outside of it. Any social organization cannot exist without connections with the external environment and, therefore, external communications become a mandatory component of the functioning of any social system (organization¸ institution).
Communication in a group. In a relatively small group, each participant has approximately an equal chance to participate in communication. In groups where the number of participants is 10-12, it is possible to carry out direct and feedback communication between all participants of discussion.
Interpersonal communication is carried out between two people. Both parties act as both transmitters and receivers. One party's message is conveyed by the communication channel in the form of sound. The feedback is the response of each participant.
Intrapersonal communication occurs within the individual when the person discusses problems with himself/herself, looking for solutions, asking questions and answering them himself/herself. As feedback here is the fact of refutation or correction of the information posed in the question.
Depending on the direction of the flow of information, communication is divided into horizontal and vertical. The vertical direction, in turn, is divided into downward and upward.

The communication flow that moves from one level in a group or organization to another, lower level, is called top-down. It is used by leaders of groups of setting tasks, describing work, informing about the procedures in order to highlight the problems which require attention, to offer options of feedback on the results of work. In this case, the more levels the information passes through, the lower the probability that it will not be distorted. The most typical example is the communication of supervisors with their subordinates.

Ascending information, from lower to higher levels, is used to provide feedback from subordinates to supervisors to inform them about performance and current issues. Such information does not simply serve as a means of communicating workers' opinions to supervisors, but allows higher-level authorities and supervisors to respond to changes in collective opinion that occur in a timely manner [[]] . Managers analyze this information in order to make the right management decision. Upward information is used to inform supervisors of a certain level by lower level managers. This can be used by submitting reports, summaries of individual projects to higher management.

The production process is still dominated by top-down communication systems. In such systems, the main production link is perceived as an executive stage, which must fulfill the orders of management structures. Coordination of the work of the links of such an organization is carried out through the management, which becomes an intermediary in communication between them. Employees are nurtured in the psychology of the executor. Therefore, any discrepancy in the solution of production or social issues may cause dissatisfaction of managers.
Management practice in such a system is based on the principles of division and specialization of labor, its unification, the predominance of administrative, legal and economic management methods. Modern managers, brought up in the old structures of management, prefer this system and not always can absorb the new systems of communication.
Horizontal direction. Communication takes place between group members of equal rank, as well as between peer groups. Horizontal communications in some cases are an indispensable attribute of the implementation of a certain management algorithm, while in others they occur spontaneously. The largest American manager, Lee Iacocca, after becoming general manager at Chrysler, "could not believe that the manager heading the design department did not maintain constant communication with the head of the production department. "No one at Chrysler Corporation seemed to understand that the interaction of the various functions in the company was absolutely necessary.

Another example: sales and automotive production were under one vice president. This was incomprehensible to me, because we were dealing with extremely labor-intensive and completely different functions here. To make matters worse, there was very little communication between the two areas.

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